Chilean Magna Carta Change: Opportunities and Misconceptions

On 25 October 2019, the referendum for a change in the Chilean Constitution was approved at 78,28 %[1]. This New Constitution, or Magna Carta, is seen as the “most important political achievement for Chile since it brought back democracy in 1990”[2]. The referendum consisted of two questions: one on whether or not to change the constitution, and the other on which constitutional organ should be in charge of drafting the next constitution[3]. The citizens selected a constitutional convention composed of 155 citizens, who would be democratically elected[4], as opposed to the mix convention which was also proposed[5]. The coming years will determine which values and principles will be represented for the New Constitution[6], as the population asked for economic and social changes (less privatization, education reforms), but also a general dissatisfaction with the political elite for decades[7]. The current neoliberalist doctrine of the state did improve the country’s economy, at the expense of the people with low wages, weak social services and a misbalanced judicial system[8]. More so, the Chilean party system revolves around a network of institutions and actors, which restricts access to democracy. This shows how the elite control over the political processes, as well as a lack of pluralism – all set in the Constitution. As an example, over 60 % of congress members were re-elected for a second legislative term[9]. As such, the New Constitution is perceived as a way to change this situation and make the population demands a reality.

The current constitution was created by General Pinochet during his military regime, in 1980[10]. It favored right-wing parties, via a system of deputies and senators limiting any changes that could occur[11]. The 1980 constitution also minimizes the role of the State, thus limiting its capacity to develop social welfare and economic policies, as well as impacting the voters’ choices[12]. Demands for changes to the Constitution occurred in 1989 and 2005, both without any real modifications.[13] There is thus a consensus over changing the constitution within the population, as in 1989 already 91 % of citizens supported it[14]. More so, the 2005 amendments of the Constitution removed other authoritarian parts of the Constitution, via the initiative of the former President Lagos. After that, he declared that “we have a fully democratic Constitution that unites us”[15]. Even the reform proposed by the former President Bachelet in 2018 had not been applied by the Congress[16]. The reasons for this lack of change despite the general demand, lie in both the political cycle and the historical context of the current Magna Carta. Regarding the political aspect, Bachelet did promise changes in education, tax reforms as well as a New Constitution, but never announced procedures until 2015, which was at the end of her mandate[17]. Not only was it seen as a way to “kick the problem down the road for the next term”, but the seven stages it comprised were also rejected both by right-wing and left-wing politicians: the formers did not agree with the process to amend the current constitution, while the latter judged it as a block to the possibility of a constituent assembly[18]. This late attempt to propose changes was thus not appropriate for the political context, and resulted in “constitutionalizing the 2017 Presidential-Parliamentary election”[19].

As this was only the latest attempt to modernize the Chilean Constitution, it is necessary to look at the other aspect of the issue, which is the historical context around Constitutions in Chile. Pinochet’s Constitution replaced the 1925 one, itself deemed as inappropriate for the era. He thus used the council, composed of loyalists to adopt the now-current constitution by more than two-thirds of approval in a referendum in 1980[20]. It is interesting to see that the same criticism is now held against his Constitution, as the population and the opposition criticize the economic limitations of the state and the primacy of property rights, enshrined in the Constitution[21]. More so, a general debate took life after 2005 over the Constitution validity, as some argued that its creator was a dictator, while others raised the fact that the removal of the authoritarian parts in the text was enough to get rid of its dictatorial past. The unfair rules for the constitutional amendment were also discussed, as per the rules there is a need for high quorums within the Congress, creating a veto-power for loyalists of Pinochet[22]. The debates were not limited to what the Constitution promotes: in 2015, some political actors of the political establishment disagreed with the need for a Constitution, as the country was not in a state of institutional crisis[23]. The problem before the 2020 referendum was thus both political and institutional: these factors did and are still limiting the process of creating a New Constitution.

On another side, there is a wide gap between civil society and political elites.[24] This distrust of political elites can be seen in the low levels of partisan identification of the population, but also decreasing electoral participation since 1990. At the same time, an increasing part of the population seeks to participate in politics, partly because of the government’s failure to address the population demands.[25] The government acted against demonstrators and the opposition to protect its interests, as highlighted during the various protests of the decade. As such, the 2011 social movements have been keen to demonstrate and call for a New Constitution by the people via a Constituent Assembly – of course, this is one of the many demands, but also the most redundant among both the elites and grassroots movements[26]. Protests became regular, highlighting a crisis not only of representation within the country but also in its Constitution.[27] As seen previously, the roots for these demands were criticisms against the economic system and the perceived illegitimacy of the Constitution[28], which was already a widespread concern among the population. These concerns persisted until October 2019, when demonstrations started due to an increase in subway fares, leading to a social movement that obtained the referendum[29]. Violence against Demonstrators occurred, with the regime justifying this, as a need to protect private properties[30]. To counter the manifestations, additional measures such as ID controls and excessive use of force escalated until a State of Urgency was declared by Pinera on 18 October 2019[31]. The military was in the streets and human rights violations were committed, with 1,500 accusations of torture and 100 for sexual violence[32]. All in all, more than 13,000 persons were wounded[33]. It also resulted in a general crisis that lasted much longer[34]. The situation continued to escalate until the Congress proposed the referendum to be held in November 2019[35], with the government’s agreement[36]. It was first decided to be held on 26 April but was later postponed and strict sanitary measures were put in place to allow most citizens to participate[37].

This process was under scrutiny by the Chilean population: the Bloomberg agency reported the population in its majority waited for a change over inequalities[38]. It was thus widely expected that the referendum would be accepted. The population voted with almost 99,46%,  demanding a fresh Constitution[39]. However, it means political parties face a huge challenge: to modernize and enhance transparency while allowing newly elected Convention members to create a constitutional document[40]. It is thus crucial for Chile that people can vote for a change in their Constitution, as the General Pinochet’s Constitution was approved via what can be considered dubious consultations[41]. More so, elected citizens will draft the new one, which is a first in the country[42]. It is also a success for the Chile women rights groups, which have made the law for parity in the Committee a reality[43]: the future committee will be composed of indigenous people, and will enforce gender parity via the limitation of 78 plus one seat for a gender. The population will go back to the booths on 11 April 2021 to elect the members of the future conventional constitution committee via electoral lists[44] and will have up to a year to complete the New Constitution. All citizens are eligible, if over the age of 18 years, and of Chilean nationality. If one holds a function within authorities, including functionaries from the judicial system, Public Ministry, Armed Forces, etc. they will be able to participate but will have to put on a hold on their mandates during the drafting[45]. The Convention will elect a president and a vice-president with an absolute majority, as well as a secretary[46]. More so, all articles will have to be approved by two-thirds of the newly created assembly to ensure it has moderate values[47]. The Convention will provide technical, administrative and financial resources by the President or other constitutional organs depending on its demands[48]. Until the New Constitution enters into force, the current Constitution still governs the country[49].

The political consequences of the referendum will appear at a later date, however, there were economic and financial consequences that followed the referendum result: the peso, for example, lost value soon after the announcement.[50] Internally, the events impacted the country’s growth, as its GDP grew 3% less than the previous year.[51] More so, the 2021 presidential and legislative elections might complicate the situation: as the convention will be drafted at the same time with both processes likely to influence each other[52]. It is interesting, as the convention cannot intervene other than through its attributed function: the law and the Chilean values as specified by the Constitution. As a result, all of those involved in the drafting will not be able to put forth their candidacy for the coming elections.[53]

The democratic regime, international treaties, as well as the judiciary and executive decisions will not be altered.[54] However, other political consequences may arise including the deadlines for the Convention, such as seen with The Philadelphia Convention of 1787 – thus potentially exceeding their nine-month mandate (with additional three-month extension possible)[55]. The drafting phase itself will thus bring uncertainty in already hard times[56].

Even though an accord was reached between political actors, progress on other issues including impunity for past crimes, abortion laws, etc. remains low[57], which the New Constitution may not improve. The population’s grievances are directly linked to the strong neoliberal measures of the country, that leave key sectors (education, energy, health etc.) to private industries, without State control over them[58]. As such, the priorities for citizens are inequalities and social reforms[59]. It is thus likely that not all revendications will be taken into account. On the other hand, the opposite situation could lead to a race in which a bit of every demand will be included, so that the two-thirds majority requirement within the Convention is satisfied, and thus not provoking more than superficial changes instead of the profound reforms demanded[60]. Two concerns must then be taken into account: how many changes will the New Constitution bring; and will they correspond to what the population expected? While the former will not be answered before the New Constitution enters into action, some elements can be discussed for the latter. Chileans demanded societal changes and a different economic system, which they both currently associate with the Constitution[61]. It may, however, be counter-intuitive to actually do so: these are not automatically associated with constitutional factors, as Chile managed to develop its democracy and several social standards, even after Pinochet created his Constitution[62]. However, the current debate does not mention this tidbit. The public discourse considers that a New Constitution would automatically change the population’s lives for the better, which some deemed as “constitutional fetishism”[63].

It is not the intent of the author to portray the New Magna Carta as a false hope but the Chilean society’s trust toward their political elites was eroded[64], and the New Constitution is seen as a way by the population to regain some of it. More so, the fracture between those loyal to Pinochet and his inheritance against the opposition lead to a blockage[65], which exploded during the 2019 protests. However, it is misleading to tie these political issues to the drafting of a New Magna Carta. It is important to highlight what a New Constitution can and cannot do, and the processes to create it: the mix convention will allow new actors to participate in the Chilean political system, and will likely modify the state vision on some aspects such as the economy. In that regard, the Constitution will bring back support in the political system, and likely address some needs within the country. However, a Constitution cannot fix decades of privatization and elitism. That will need a reorganization of the political system of the country and the accession of new actors to the political scene. If the New Constitution is a step in this direction, there are many interests at stakes, which could turn this opportunity into a shallow change for the Chilean population. Continuing to link the New Constitution and the end of the source of dissatisfaction of the population could lead to a worse situation: if the Constitution does not correspond to the expectations of the Chileans, protests could resume, in an already tense context. More so, the crisis is not only political, but existential: if a New Constitution cannot reply to the demands of the population, what could? Considering the New Constitution as the primary solution is giving it legitimacy, and implicitly guaranteeing it is the most appropriate tool in the situation. If, as is highly probable, the Constitution cannot satisfy all the demands, it may create another crisis, which this time will not be solved with promises of amendments to the Magna Carta. Unfortunately, it would thus be too optimistic to consider a New Constitution as the only solution to the State crisis.


Ambre Karoutsos holds a Master’s degree in security and terrorism from the University of Kent and is presently a Master’s student of political science at the University of Amsterdam. Ambre volunteered for the World Wildlife Fund and the Red Cross. She has recently joined the Generation Climate Europe where she participates in report writing on the Green Deal and the EU. Ambre is a member of the Platform for Peace and Humanity. She prepared the International Peace and Security section of the Weekly News Recap.



[1] Laing, Aislinn and Cambero, Fabian, “Rebirth”: Chileans vote by millions to tear up Pinochet’s consitution. (Reuters, 26 October 2020). Accessed at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-chile-constitution-idUSKBN27B00N; Servel (2020), Votación Constitución Política 2020, Available at: https://pv.servelelecciones.cl/; BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919.

[2] Reyes C.J. (26/10/2020), ¿Por qué es histórica la votación del plebiscito de hoy en Chile?, El Tiempo, Available at: https://www.eltiempo.com/mundo/latinoamerica/chile-vota-para-cambiar-la-constitucion-en-plebiscito-545135.

[3] BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919; Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (14/12/2020), Guía legal sobre: Proceso constituyente, Explica cómo se llevará a cabo el proceso que puede derivar en una nueva Constitución, BCN, Available at: https://www.bcn.cl/leyfacil/recurso/proceso-constituyente

[4] BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919.

[5] Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (14/12/2020), Guía legal sobre: Proceso constituyente, Explica cómo se llevará a cabo el proceso que puede derivar en una nueva Constitución, BCN, Available at: https://www.bcn.cl/leyfacil/recurso/proceso-constituyente; DIARIO OFICIALDE LA REPUBLICA DE CHILE , (MINISTERIO SECRETARÍA GENERAL DE LA PRESIDENCIA 24/12/2019), Available at: https://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2019/12/24/42536/01/1703893.pdf.

[6] Malinowski M. & Thomson E. (25/10/2020), Chile to Scrap Pinochet-Era Constitution in Landslide Referendum, Bloomberg, Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-25/chile-holds-landmark-vote-on-new-constitution-amid-social-unrest

[7] Heijnis N. C. (June 2018), Political Dissatisfaction and Elite Networksin Chilean empirical case study on social unrest in Chile, Department of Political Science, Universiteit Leiden, Under the supervision of Frank de Zwart, Available at: https://studenttheses.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2663498/view.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Heijnis N. C. (June 2018), Political Dissatisfaction and Elite Networksin Chilean empirical case study on social unrest in Chile, Department of Political Science, Universiteit Leiden, Under the supervision of Frank de Zwart, Available at: https://studenttheses.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2663498/view.

[10] BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919.

[11] Reyes C.J. (26/10/2020), ¿Por qué es histórica la votación del plebiscito de hoy en Chile?, El Tiempo, Available at: https://www.eltiempo.com/mundo/latinoamerica/chile-vota-para-cambiar-la-constitucion-en-plebiscito-545135.

[12] Nugent C. (25/10/2020), Chileans Are About to Vote on Rewriting Their Whole Constitution. Will It Turn a ‘Social Explosion’ Into a New Plan for the Country?, Time, Available at: https://time.com/5900901/chile-constitution-referendum/.

[13] La Tercera Santiago (15/11/2019), Réforme. Au Chili, le pouvoir annonce un référendum attendu sur la Constitution, Courrier International, Available at: https://www.courrierinternational.com/article/reforme-au-chili-le-pouvoir-annonce-un-referendum-attendu-sur-la-constitution; Bellolio C. (19/07/2016), Will the People of Chile Succeed in Rewriting their ‘Dictatorship Constitution’?, The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society, Available at: https://www.fljs.org/content/will-people-chile-succeed-rewriting-their-%E2%80%98dictatorship-constitution%E2%80%99.     

[14] Bellolio C. (19/07/2016), Will the People of Chile Succeed in Rewriting their ‘Dictatorship Constitution’?, The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society, Available at: https://www.fljs.org/content/will-people-chile-succeed-rewriting-their-%E2%80%98dictatorship-constitution%E2%80%99.  

[15] Ibid.   

[16] La Tercera Santiago (15/11/2019), Réforme. Au Chili, le pouvoir annonce un référendum attendu sur la Constitution, Courrier International, Available at: https://www.courrierinternational.com/article/reforme-au-chili-le-pouvoir-annonce-un-referendum-attendu-sur-la-constitution

[17] Bellolio C. (19/07/2016), Will the People of Chile Succeed in Rewriting their ‘Dictatorship Constitution’?, The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society, Available at: https://www.fljs.org/content/will-people-chile-succeed-rewriting-their-%E2%80%98dictatorship-constitution%E2%80%99.  

[18] Ibid

[19] Ibid.  

[20] Ibid

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid

[23] Ibid

[24] Heijnis N. C. (June 2018), Political Dissatisfaction and Elite Networksin Chilean empiricalcase study on social unrest in Chile, Department of Political Science, Universiteit Leiden, Under the supervision of Frank de Zwart, Available at: https://studenttheses.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2663498/view.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Bellolio C. (19/07/2016), Will the People of Chile Succeed in Rewriting their ‘Dictatorship Constitution’?, The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society, Available at: https://www.fljs.org/content/will-people-chile-succeed-rewriting-their-%E2%80%98dictatorship-constitution%E2%80%99.  

[27] Heijnis N. C. (June 2018), Political Dissatisfaction and Elite Networksin Chilean empirical case study on social unrest in Chile, Department of Political Science, Universiteit Leiden, Under the supervision of Frank de Zwart, Available at: https://studenttheses.universiteitleiden.nl/access/item%3A2663498/view.

[28] BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919; Reyes C.J. (26/10/2020), ¿Por qué es histórica la votación del plebiscito de hoy en Chile?, El Tiempo, Available at: https://www.eltiempo.com/mundo/latinoamerica/chile-vota-para-cambiar-la-constitucion-en-plebiscito-545135; Amnesty International (2019), LES DROITS HUMAINS AU CHILI EN 2019, Available at: https://www.amnesty.fr/pays/chili.

[29] Malinowski M. & Thomson E. (25/10/2020), Chile to Scrap Pinochet-Era Constitution in Landslide Referendum, Bloomberg, Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-25/chile-holds-landmark-vote-on-new-constitution-amid-social-unrest.

[30] Amnesty International (2019), LES DROITS HUMAINS AU CHILI EN 2019, Available at: https://www.amnesty.fr/pays/chili.

[31] Ibid

[32] Ibid.

[33] Ibid.

[34] Reyes C.J. (26/10/2020), ¿Por qué es histórica la votación del plebiscito de hoy en Chile?, El Tiempo, Available at: https://www.eltiempo.com/mundo/latinoamerica/chile-vota-para-cambiar-la-constitucion-en-plebiscito-545135.

[35] Ibid.

[36] La Tercera Santiago (15/11/2019), Réforme. Au Chili, le pouvoir annonce un référendum attendu sur la Constitution, Courrier International, Available at: https://www.courrierinternational.com/article/reforme-au-chili-le-pouvoir-annonce-un-referendum-attendu-sur-la-constitution.  

[37] BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919.

[38] Malinowski M. & Thomson E. (25/10/2020), Chile to Scrap Pinochet-Era Constitution in Landslide Referendum, Bloomberg, Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-25/chile-holds-landmark-vote-on-new-constitution-amid-social-unrest; Reyes C.J. (26/10/2020), ¿Por qué es histórica la votación del plebiscito de hoy en Chile?, El Tiempo, Available at: https://www.eltiempo.com/mundo/latinoamerica/chile-vota-para-cambiar-la-constitucion-en-plebiscito-545135.

[39] Servel (2020), Votación Constitución Política 2020, Available at: https://pv.servelelecciones.cl/

[40] Malinowski M. & Thomson E. (25/10/2020), Chile to Scrap Pinochet-Era Constitution in Landslide Referendum, Bloomberg, Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-25/chile-holds-landmark-vote-on-new-constitution-amid-social-unrest.

[41] Gargarella R. (01-02/2020), Diez puntos sobre el cambio constitucional en Chile, Nuso Nº 285, Available at: https://nuso.org/articulo/diez-puntos-sobre-el-cambio-constitucional-en-chile/.

[42] BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919.

[43] Reyes C.J. (26/10/2020), ¿Por qué es histórica la votación del plebiscito de hoy en Chile?, El Tiempo, Available at: https://www.eltiempo.com/mundo/latinoamerica/chile-vota-para-cambiar-la-constitucion-en-plebiscito-545135.

[44] Malinowski M. & Thomson E. (25/10/2020), Chile to Scrap Pinochet-Era Constitution in Landslide Referendum, Bloomberg, Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-25/chile-holds-landmark-vote-on-new-constitution-amid-social-unrest; BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919; Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (14/12/2020), Guía legal sobre: Proceso constituyente, Explica cómo se llevará a cabo el proceso que puede derivar en una nueva Constitución, BCN, Available at: https://www.bcn.cl/leyfacil/recurso/proceso-constituyente

[45] Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (14/12/2020), Guía legal sobre: Proceso constituyente, Explica cómo se llevará a cabo el proceso que puede derivar en una nueva Constitución, BCN, Available at: https://www.bcn.cl/leyfacil/recurso/proceso-constituyente.

[46] Ibid.   

[47] Malinowski M. & Thomson E. (25/10/2020), Chile to Scrap Pinochet-Era Constitution in Landslide Referendum, Bloomberg, Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-25/chile-holds-landmark-vote-on-new-constitution-amid-social-unrest; BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919; Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (14/12/2020), Guía legal sobre: Proceso constituyente, Explica cómo se llevará a cabo el proceso que puede derivar en una nueva Constitución, BCN, Available at: https://www.bcn.cl/leyfacil/recurso/proceso-constituyente.

[48] DIARIO OFICIAL DE LA REPUBLICA DE CHILE, (MINISTERIO SECRETARÍA GENERAL DE LA PRESIDENCIA 24/12/2019), Available at: https://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2019/12/24/42536/01/1703893.pdf.

[49] Ibid.  

[50] Malinowski M. & Thomson E. (25/10/2020), Chile to Scrap Pinochet-Era Constitution in Landslide Referendum, Bloomberg, Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10-25/chile-holds-landmark-vote-on-new-constitution-amid-social-unrest.

[51] Navia P. (05/03/2020),Chile Is About to Make a Huge Mistake, Americas Quarterly, Available at: https://www.americasquarterly.org/article/chile-is-about-to-make-a-huge-mistake/.

[52] Ibid.

[53] DIARIO OFICIALDE LA REPUBLICA DE CHILE , (MINISTERIO SECRETARÍA GENERAL DE LA PRESIDENCIA 24/12/2019), Available at: https://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2019/12/24/42536/01/1703893.pdf.

[54] Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (14/12/2020), Guía legal sobre: Proceso constituyente, Explica cómo se llevará a cabo el proceso que puede derivar en una nueva Constitución, BCN, Available at: https://www.bcn.cl/leyfacil/recurso/proceso-constituyente

[55] Navia P. (05/03/2020),Chile Is About to Make a Huge Mistake, Americas Quarterly, Available at: https://www.americasquarterly.org/article/chile-is-about-to-make-a-huge-mistake/; Gob.cl (2020), Proceso Constituyente, Available at: https://www.gob.cl/procesoconstituyente/.

[56] See Gargarella R. (01-02/2020), Diez puntos sobre el cambio constitucional en Chile, Nuso Nº 285, Available at: https://nuso.org/articulo/diez-puntos-sobre-el-cambio-constitucional-en-chile/.

[57] Amnesty International (2019), LES DROITS HUMAINS AU CHILI EN 2019, Available at: https://www.amnesty.fr/pays/chili.

[58] La Tercera Santiago (15/11/2019), Réforme. Au Chili, le pouvoir annonce un référendum attendu sur la Constitution, Courrier International, Available at: https://www.courrierinternational.com/article/reforme-au-chili-le-pouvoir-annonce-un-referendum-attendu-sur-la-constitution.  

[59] BBC News Mundo (26/10/2020), Chile aprueba por abrumadora mayoría cambiar la Constitución de Pinochet: ¿qué pasa ahora y por qué es un hito mundial?, BBC, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-54686919.

[60] Navia P. (05/03/2020),Chile Is About to Make a Huge Mistake, Americas Quarterly, Available at: https://www.americasquarterly.org/article/chile-is-about-to-make-a-huge-mistake/.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Ibid.

[63] Gargarella R. (01-02/2020), Diez puntos sobre el cambio constitucional en Chile, Nuso Nº 285, Available at: https://nuso.org/articulo/diez-puntos-sobre-el-cambio-constitucional-en-chile/.

[64] Bellolio C. (19/07/2016), Will the People of Chile Succeed in Rewriting their ‘Dictatorship Constitution’?, The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society, Available at: https://www.fljs.org/content/will-people-chile-succeed-rewriting-their-%E2%80%98dictatorship-constitution%E2%80%99.  

[65] Ibid.    

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