The European Union, Hungary and the Rule of Law

On 18 March, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán announced its Fidesz party was leaving the European People’s Party (EPP)[1]. This follows years of conflict between the EU and Hungary over the rule of law and anti-Brussels campaigns[2]. The EPP made moves to exclude Fidesz via the adoption of a new rule that allows the EPP Members of Parliaments to suspend the Fidesz party over its democratic backsliding[3]. To avoid being excluded, Orbán sent a letter of resignation to the chairman of the EPP, Manfred Weber[4]. The EPP reacted and confirmed the resignation, even stating “FIDESZ has left Christian Democracy. In truth, it left many years ago”[5]. This event, deemed “inevitable”[6], is far from being the first tear in the EU-Hungary relations that soured years ago, since the 2015 migration crisis.

A long-standing conflict between the EPP and Fidesz

Within the European Parliament, the 7 European political parties, organized by political affiliation, debate legislation, amendments and laws. The EPP, from which the current President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen is issued from, is the largest party in the European Parliament. It is composed of center-right parties, mostly from the Christian Democrats (CDU)[7]. Most of the EPP’s 180 members backed the change of rules, by 148 votes to 28 with four abstentions, thus allowing them to suspend or dismiss an entire national party delegation[8]. Some of the EPP’s Members of Parliaments campaigned for years, and described the event as “long overdue departure of Fidesz and Viktor Orbán from mainstream European politics”[9]. According to them, its right-wing Eurosceptic party did not represent the EPP’s values.

As such, Scandinavia celebrated Orbán’s announcement[10]. On the other hand, the Christian Democrat CDU/CSU’s position was more neutral in regard to Fidesz[11]. This vote however was approved at 82% of the EPP[12], highlighting the consensus within the party against Orbán’s. While this exclusion had little impact on the EPP, which will remain the largest political party within the European Parliament, it has been framed as an “antidemocratic, unjust and unacceptable,” decision, “tailor-made to punish Fidesz “[13].

The Hungarian Prime Minister’s choice of words regarding the new rule as “a hostile move against Fidesz and our voters”[14] comes into a broader context of tensions between the Hungarian government and the EU. Orbán and the EPP have conflicted for years over the former’s democratic record. The later especially denounced attacks against EPP leadership and Brussels, as well as violations of human rights. Already In 2019, the EPP suspended Fidesz for a Hungarian government campaign accusing Jean-Claude Juncker (at the time head of the European Commission) and George Soros (a Hungarian billionaire frequently targeted in the Hungarian government’s campaigns) of plotting to flood Europe with migrants[15].

The Hungarian government and the EU: A discursive construction of the ‘enemy’

Frictions in the EU-Hungary relationship started in 2015, as Hungary’s stance toward migrants hardened. The country, traditionally a transit, sending and receiving state[16], framed the arrival of asylum seekers as “a Muslim invasion threatening the national security, social cohesion, and Christian identity of the Hungarian nation”[17]. Anti-immigrants and xenophobic discourses were spread by the government via publicly funded campaigns[18]. The adoption of the 2018 amendments to Hungary’s asylum law was thus not surprising[19]. These prohibited asylum-seekers from receiving international protection in Hungary by risking up to a year in prison organizations and individuals providing legal assistance to migrants[20]. This “Stop Soros” law led to a condemnation from the European Court of Justice as well as an infringement procedure that was launched by the European Commission for non-compliance with the EU law[21]. This procedure allows the Commission to take legal measures against Member States for failing to comply with EU law. In that case, the breach of the law is double: not only is it against EU asylum laws, but it also concerns the freedom of association and the rights of civil society organisations.

Not only did these anti-asylum-seekers policies were born from a change in Hungary’s migration policies over “protect[ing] Hungary’s conservative Christian identity and to defend Europe from immigration from the Mideast and Africa”[22], it also served its internal agenda. The “crisis situation caused by mass immigration” allowed the government to grant extraordinary powers to police and military, and to backslide its stance on other issues such as LGBT+, intersex and women rights[23]. By 2018, Hungary’s actions were seen by the European Parliament as “[…] a clear risk of a serious breach of the EU founding values […]”[24]. At this occasion, it seized the European Council over the Article 7(1) of the Treaty of the European Union, one of the European Union founding treaties[25]. The vote stated, with 448 votes to 197 and 48 abstentions, the need for Hungarian authorities to adhere and make respect these values to avoid sanctions.

In parallel to these unilateral decisions from the Hungarian Prime Minister, civil society organizations, rights defenders and independent journalists faced -and are still facing- restrictions and the media’s propaganda (owned at 80% per the government)[26]. More so, Viktor Orbán, extended its control of the judiciary, imposing restrictions over NGOs, indirectly stigmatizing and restricting refugees and asylum-seekers’ movement further[27]. This non-compliance with the EU’s values created reactions internally[28], but also from the EU itself: in May 2019, the European Commission and the European Association of Judges had expressed concern over the weakened system of checks and balances[29]. The Venice Commission (charged to provide legal advice to Member States, EU institutions and international organization alike) intervened on multiple occasions[30], but was criticized by some as a political interference[31]. These changes had consequences: in December 2019, the European Parliament passed an “omnibus bill” to allow public authorities “to challenge decisions of ordinary courts in politically sensitive cases”[32].

This disregard of the EU’s values, highlighted by repeated infractions of EU decisions in migration policies, was also shown through attacks against EPP officials[33]. In February 2019, the Hungarian government commissioned posters featuring EPP members and at the time European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, alongside a photograph of George Soros with the mention: “you too have a right to know what Brussels is preparing”[34]. It is however not a practice reserved to the Hungarian government officials, as Tamás Deutsch,  head of the Fidesz delegation in the European parliament got suspended over a comparison of M.Weber’s statements to  Gestapo and Hungary’s communist-era secret police’s slogans[35].

The EU’s stance on the rule of law

As such, the announcement of Orbán over Fidesz’s departure only leaves one question: what’s next? During the 2019’s European Parliament elections, Orbán had tried to create an alliance of European right-wing parties[36]. He may be able this time to join a coalition made of political parties similar to his views such as the Eurosceptic European Conservatives & Reformists (ECR) or the Identity & Democracy group[37]. His meeting with Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki and Matteo Salvini make a new coalition with them highly probable[38].

In regard to the EU and the respect for the rule of law, however, the main issue still remains: Hungary is one of the “illiberal states” that do not follow the EU’s rule of law. As the latter is a founding value, the non-respect for it threatens the cohesion and trust of all Members-States[39]. Several measures, including the annual rule of law report and the Rule of Law Conditionality Mechanism have however been adopted in 2020 to protect it[40]. The latter ensures “protection of the EU budget and the interests of its end beneficiaries” by enabling “the EU to cut capitals’ funding if they renege on rule-of-law commitments in a way that threatens the Union’s financial interests”[41]. As this mechanism aims to “to allow the EU to cut funding to governments that do not respect the rule of law”, countries such as Hungary see it instead as an “ideological blackmail tool” and blocked the EU recovery package it was tied to until an agreement was reached over the €1.8 trillion fund[42]. While it entered into force on the 1 January 2021, Hungary and Poland also announced they would challenge it – which can be seen as against the Article 4(3) TEU on the duty of sincere cooperation[43]. As they haven’t yet put to reality their claim, the rule of law mechanism provides the EU with a tool to control where its funding goes. It is not, however, omnipotent: the EU can only cut funding if there is a treaty based procedure, which only exists on the “need to protect the financial interests of the Union itself”[44]. This is why the mechanism has been linked to the recovery package[45]. This limitation is nonetheless even more constraining, as proving actual harm to financial interests is difficult: the lack of respect for the rule of law does not guarantee a mishandling of EU funding, nor does it disprove that those following the rule of law will not mismanage EU funding[46].

It is however a step toward highlighting that the rule of law is a “sine qua non”[47] condition to all EU Member States, as potential EU sanctions would also arrive before the 2022 elections, thus impacting Orbán’s strategy[48]. As it is not the first time the Hungarian government –or any other Member State- broke the EU law, this measure against Fidesz is unprecedented. Since parties within the Parliament represent members from various countries and backgrounds, disputes within parties are not uncommon. However, the timing is different: 13 member parties requested Fidesz to be excluded, and the motion was backed by not only by EPP members, but also key actors within EU institutions. It could seem surprising, especially when compared to Poland’s situation, which adopted a similar stance in regard to migration politics and has not faced similar measures. The breakout between the Hungarian party and the Parliament was thus far from inevitable, but instead fueled by political disagreements. It is however interesting to wonder whether it will have an effect other than publicly disapproving Orbán’s politics: non-respect for the rule of law, for various freedoms and xenophobic discourses will impact the Hungarian society, with the 2022 parliamentary elections in mind. While it has been announced that the current Hungarian government will be challenged by a coalition of the opposition, the former extended its control over key sectors of society. As the European Commission expressed concerns over the fairness of the forthcoming process, only time will tell whether or not the EU can maintain its rule of law within Member States.


Ambre Karoutsos is a project coordinator of the Peace and Security Monitor at the Platform for Peace and Humanity. Prior to that she contributed to the International Peace and Security section of the Weekly News Recap. Ambre holds a Master’s degree in security and terrorism from the University of Kent and is presently a Master’s student of political science at the University of Amsterdam. Ambre volunteered for the World Wildlife Fund and the Red Cross. She has recently joined the Generation Climate Europe where she participates in report writing on the Green Deal and the EU.



[1] Reuters (18/03/2021), Hungary: Viktor Orban’s ruling Fidesz party quits European People’s Party, DW, https://www.dw.com/en/hungary-viktor-orbans-ruling-fidesz-party-quits-european-peoples-party/a-56919987

[2] Ibid.

[3] Henley J. (03/03/2021), Hungary’s Fidesz party to leave European parliament centre-right group, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/03/hungarys-fidesz-party-to-leave-european-parliament-centre-right-group; Reuters (18/03/2021), Hungary: Viktor Orban’s ruling Fidesz party quits European People’s Party, DW, https://www.dw.com/en/hungary-viktor-orbans-ruling-fidesz-party-quits-european-peoples-party/a-56919987

[4] Crowcroft O. (03/03/2021), Hungary PM Orban’s quits the largest group in European Parliament, Euronews, https://www.euronews.com/2021/03/03/orban-s-fidesz-party-quits-epp-group-amid-suspension-row

[5] EPP Chief Donald Tusk to Novak in Reuters (18/03/2021), Hungary: Viktor Orban’s ruling Fidesz party quits European People’s Party, DW, https://www.dw.com/en/hungary-viktor-orbans-ruling-fidesz-party-quits-european-peoples-party/a-56919987, Original tweet: Tusk D. (18/03/2021), “FIDESZ has left Christian Democracy. In truth, it left many years ago.”, Twitter, Available at: https://twitter.com/donaldtuskEPP/status/1372585317086212101

[6] Esther de Lange, of the Dutch CDA in Crowcroft O. (03/03/2021), Hungary PM Orban’s quits the largest group in European Parliament, Euronews, https://www.euronews.com/2021/03/03/orban-s-fidesz-party-quits-epp-group-amid-suspension-row

[7] Henley J. (03/03/2021), Hungary’s Fidesz party to leave European parliament centre-right group, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/03/hungarys-fidesz-party-to-leave-european-parliament-centre-right-group

[8] Ibid. See also AFP & Reuters (03/03/2021), Hungary’s Orban pulls Fidesz from center-right EU alliance, DW, https://www.dw.com/en/hungarys-orban-pulls-fidesz-from-center-right-eu-alliance/a-56760505

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid. See also Kristersson U. & Orpo P. (18/03/2019), “It is high time to exclude Fidesz from the EPP”, EUObserver.com, https://euobserver.com/opinion/144421

[11] Ibid.

[12] Crowcroft O. (03/03/2021), Hungary PM Orban’s quits the largest group in European Parliament, Euronews, https://www.euronews.com/2021/03/03/orban-s-fidesz-party-quits-epp-group-amid-suspension-row

[13] Thorpe N. (03/03/2021), Hungary: Viktor Orban’s Fidesz to quit Europe’s centre-right EPP, BBC News, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56250461; Crowcroft O. (03/03/2021), Hungary PM Orban’s quits the largest group in European Parliament, Euronews, https://www.euronews.com/2021/03/03/orban-s-fidesz-party-quits-epp-group-amid-suspension-row; Henley J. (03/03/2021), Hungary’s Fidesz party to leave European parliament centre-right group, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/03/hungarys-fidesz-party-to-leave-european-parliament-centre-right-group

[14] Thorpe N. (03/03/2021), Hungary: Viktor Orban’s Fidesz to quit Europe’s centre-right EPP, BBC News, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56250461

[15] AFP & Reuters (03/03/2021), Hungary’s Orban pulls Fidesz from center-right EU alliance, DW, https://www.dw.com/en/hungarys-orban-pulls-fidesz-from-center-right-eu-alliance/a-56760505; Henley J. (03/03/2021), Hungary’s Fidesz party to leave European parliament centre-right group, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/03/hungarys-fidesz-party-to-leave-european-parliament-centre-right-group

[16] Goździak E.M. (10/10/2019), Using Fear of the “Other,” Orbán Reshapes Migration Policy in a Hungary Built on Cultural Diversity, Migration Information Source, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/orban-reshapes-migration-policy-hungary; Organisation Internationale pour les Migrants (2014), Hungary, https://www.iom.int/countries/hungary

[17] Krisztina, J. (2017) Assessing Hungary’s Stance on Migration and Asylum in Light of the European and Hungarian Migration Strategies. Politics in Central Europe (Pilsen). [Online] 13 (1), 35–54, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318905131_Assessing_Hungary%27s_Stance_on_Migration_and_Asylum_in_Light_of_the_European_and_Hungarian_Migration_Strategies; Goździak E.M. (10/10/2019), Using Fear of the “Other,” Orbán Reshapes Migration Policy in a Hungary Built on Cultural Diversity, Migration Information Source, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/orban-reshapes-migration-policy-hungary

[18] As an example: in 2017 signs with the messages “If you come to Hungary, you must respect our culture,“ “If you come to Hungary, you must abide by our laws,” “If you come to Hungary, you cannot take our jobs” clearly targeted Hungarian population (as they were written in Hungarian). See Krisztina, J. (2017) Assessing Hungary’s Stance on Migration and Asylum in Light of the European and Hungarian Migration Strategies. Politics in Central Europe (Pilsen). [Online] 13 (1), p.40, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318905131_Assessing_Hungary%27s_Stance_on_Migration_and_Asylum_in_Light_of_the_European_and_Hungarian_Migration_Strategies; Human Rights Watch, Hungary, https://www.hrw.org/europe/central-asia/hungary

[19] News Wires (26/02/2021), Hungary asylum restrictions broke European law, says top EU legal adviser, France24, https://www.france24.com/en/europe/20210226-hungary-asylum-restrictions-broke-european-law-says-top-eu-legal-adviser

[20] The police and the ministry of Interior are “fully prepared” for the implementation of the “Stop Soros” Act (05/07/2018), AboutHungary, http://abouthungary.hu/news-in-brief/the-police-and-the-ministry-of-interior-are-fully-prepared-for-the-implementation-of-the-stop-soros-act; The “Stop Soros” package of laws is now in force in Hungary (02/07/2018), AboutHungary, http://abouthungary.hu/news-in-brief/the-stop-soros-package-of-laws-is-now-in-force-in-hungary/

[21] Crowcroft O. (03/03/2021), Hungary PM Orban’s quits the largest group in European Parliament, Euronews, https://www.euronews.com/2021/03/03/orban-s-fidesz-party-quits-epp-group-amid-suspension-row; European Commission v Hungary (Case C-821/19) (08/11/2019), https://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document_print.jsf;jsessionid=592909B6E3C3C48C07C75E53D34597AA?docid=222334&text=stop%2Bsoros&dir=&doclang=EN&part=1&occ=first&mode=DOC&pageIndex=0&cid=9013114; News Wires (26/02/2021), Hungary asylum restrictions broke European law, says top EU legal adviser, France24, https://www.france24.com/en/europe/20210226-hungary-asylum-restrictions-broke-european-law-says-top-eu-legal-adviser

[22] Ibid. See also Goździak E.M. (10/10/2019), Using Fear of the “Other,” Orbán Reshapes Migration Policy in a Hungary Built on Cultural Diversity, Migration Information Source, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/orban-reshapes-migration-policy-hungary; Krisztina, J. (2017) Assessing Hungary’s Stance on Migration and Asylum in Light of the European and Hungarian Migration Strategies. Politics in Central Europe (Pilsen). [Online] 13 (1), 35–54, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318905131_Assessing_Hungary%27s_Stance_on_Migration_and_Asylum_in_Light_of_the_European_and_Hungarian_Migration_Strategies; Lamour C. & Varga R.(2020) The Border as a Resource in Right-wing Populist Discourse: Viktor Orbán and the Diasporas in a Multi-scalar Europe, Journal of Borderlands Studies, 35:3, 335-350, DOI: 10.1080/08865655.2017.1402200 –https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01650013

[23] Amnesty International (2019), Hungary 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/hungary/report-hungary/

[24] Rule of law in Hungary: Parliament calls on the EU to act (12/09/2018), European Parliament https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20180906IPR12104/rule-of-law-in-hungary-parliament-calls-on-the-eu-to-act 

[25] Ibid. See also Amnesty International (2019), Hungary 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/hungary/report-hungary/. See Article 7(1) of the Treaty of the European Union – Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union – TITLE I COMMON PROVISIONS – Article 7 (ex Article 7 TEU) OJ C 326, 26.10.2012, p. 19–20, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A12012M007

[26] Human Rights Watch, Hungary, https://www.hrw.org/europe/central-asia/hungary

[27] Amnesty International (2019), Hungary 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/hungary/report-hungary/; Zalan E. (19/02/2021), “EU legal threat to Hungary over failure to obey ECJ”, EUObserver, https://euobserver.com/political/150984

[28] Such as the protests on the “slave law” that increased work time and delayed the overtime payment up to 3 years, for more information on this issue: BBC News (20/12/2018), “Hungary president signs controversial ‘slave law’”, BBC News, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-46637216; Davies P. (10/02/2019), “Hungarians protest ‘slave law’ as Orban pledges to boost population”, Euronews, https://www.euronews.com/2019/02/10/watch-live-hungarians-protest-slave-law-in-budapest; LabourStart, SLAVE LAW – Hungary 2018, https://www.labourstart.org/slavelaw.html

[29] Amnesty International (2019), Hungary 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/hungary/report-hungary/; European Commission (05/06/2019), COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION on the 2019 National Reform Programme of Hungary and delivering a Council opinion on the 2019 Convergence Programme of Hungary, https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2019/EN/COM-2019-517-F1-EN-MAIN-PART-1.PDF

[30]CDL-AD(2019)004-e Hungary – Opinion on the law on administrative courts and the law on the entry into force of the law on administrative courts and certain transitional rules, adopted by the Venice Commission at its 118th Plenary Session (Venice, 15-16 March 2019), https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL-AD(2019)004-e

[31] Amnesty International (2019), Hungary 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/europe-and-central-asia/hungary/report-hungary/

[32] Ibid.

[33] Thorpe N. (03/03/2021), Hungary: Viktor Orban’s Fidesz to quit Europe’s centre-right EPP, BBC News, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56250461

[34] Ibid. See also Henley J. (03/03/2021), Hungary’s Fidesz party to leave European parliament centre-right group, The Guardian, Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/03/hungarys-fidesz-party-to-leave-european-parliament-centre-right-group; BBCNews (19/02/2019), EU blasts Hungary ‘fake news’ on migrants, BBCNews, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-47294183

[35] Berretta E. (27/11/2020), “Manfred Weber comparé à la Gestapo par un eurodéputé hongrois”, Le Point, Available at: https://www.lepoint.fr/europe/manfred-weber-compare-a-la-gestapo-par-un-eurodepute-hongrois-27-11-2020-2402948_2626.php; Banks M. (18/12/2020), “Tamas Deutsch suspended from EPP group following ‘Gestapo’ remarks”, The Parliament, Available at: https://www.theparliamentmagazine.eu/news/article/tamas-deutsch-suspended-from-epp-group-following-gestapo-remarks

[36] Thorpe N. (03/03/2021), Hungary: Viktor Orban’s Fidesz to quit Europe’s centre-right EPP, BBC News, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56250461

[37] Henley J. (03/03/2021), Hungary’s Fidesz party to leave European parliament centre-right group, The Guardian, Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/03/hungarys-fidesz-party-to-leave-european-parliament-centre-right-group; Reuters (18/03/2021), Hungary: Viktor Orban’s ruling Fidesz party quits European People’s Party, DW, Available at: https://www.dw.com/en/hungary-viktor-orbans-ruling-fidesz-party-quits-european-peoples-party/a-56919987

[38] Zalan E. (01/04/2021), “Orbán hosts first major meeting on new rightwing alliance”, EUObserver, Available at:  https://euobserver.com/democracy/151408; Bodoni S. & Simon Z. (19/03/2021), “EU Takes Aim at Hungary and Poland With New Rule-of-Law Powers”, Bloomberg, Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-03-19/eu-takes-aim-at-orban-with-plans-for-new-rule-of-law-powers

[39] See Article 2 of the TEU: Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union – TITLE I COMMON PROVISIONS – Article 2 OJ C 236, 7.8.2012, p. 17–17, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/treaty/teu_2012/art_2/oj; Miljojkovic T. Garner O. (26/01/2021),“Democracy Institute Event Offers Debate on the Rule of Law in Europe”, Central European University, https://www.ceu.edu/article/2021-01-26/democracy-institute-event-offers-debate-rule-law-europe

[40] Ibid.

[41] Bayer L. and De La Baume M. (05/11/2020), “‘Historic’ EU rule of law deal faces challenges”, Politico, https://www.politico.eu/article/historic-rule-of-law-deal-faces-challenges/; Miljojkovic T. Garner O. (26/01/2021),“Democracy Institute Event Offers Debate on the Rule of Law in Europe”, Central European University, https://www.ceu.edu/article/2021-01-26/democracy-institute-event-offers-debate-rule-law-europe

[42] Bayer L. and De La Baume M. (05/11/2020), “‘Historic’ EU rule of law deal faces challenges”, Politico, https://www.politico.eu/article/historic-rule-of-law-deal-faces-challenges/; NewsWires (11/12/2020), “EU reaches landmark budget deal with Hungary and Poland”, France24, https://www.france24.com/en/europe/20201210-eu-reaches-landmark-budget-deal-with-hungary-and-poland-salvaging-covid-19-recovery-plan

[43] Gros D. (17/12/2020), “The European Council’s compromise on the Rule of Law Regulation”, CEP, https://www.ceps.eu/the-european-councils-compromise-on-the-rule-of-law-regulation-capitulation-to-the-forces-of-evil-or-misplaced-expectations/. See Art. 4(3) of the TEU – Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union – TITLE I COMMON PROVISIONS – Article 4 OJ C 326, 26.10.2012, p. 18–18, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A12012M004

[44] Article 3 of the Regulation – Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL (European Parliament and the Council of the European Union), https://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2014_2019/plmrep/COMMITTEES/BUDG/DV/2020/11-12/RuleofLaw-Draftconsolidatedtext_rev_EN.pdf; Gros D. (17/12/2020), “The European Council’s compromise on the Rule of Law Regulation”, CEPS, https://www.ceps.eu/the-european-councils-compromise-on-the-rule-of-law-regulation-capitulation-to-the-forces-of-evil-or-misplaced-expectations/ 

[45] Ibid.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Bayer L. and De La Baume M. (05/11/2020), “‘Historic’ EU rule of law deal faces challenges”, Politico, https://www.politico.eu/article/historic-rule-of-law-deal-faces-challenges/

[48] Bodoni S. & Simon Z. (19/03/2021),“EU Takes Aim at Hungary and Poland With New Rule-of-Law Powers”, Bloomberg, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-03-19/eu-takes-aim-at-orban-with-plans-for-new-rule-of-law-powers

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